Research Paper Writing Guide — Write Your Outline Step by Step
What is a research paper? Being a college student, you might be asking yourself that. The dreaded research paper can make any student confused about where to collect info for the paper. Thanks to the Internet, which has become accessible today, it is enough to type in a few keywords and get thousands, if not millions, results.
Would you go to the woods without a map? Do you manage to catch up with all tasks without a plan? The process of writing a research paper is difficult to imagine without a pre-written outline, and that is why it is critical to learn how to prepare it. Some students ignore this stage as it requires time. But it is worth spending half an hour on this activity instead of getting stuck in the middle of your paper, having no idea how to move on.
Some students start by exploring the sample outlines, which is a good idea. It was proven millions of times that examples and research paper outline templates help to compose these academic assignments.
An outline predetermines the level of organization. An effective research paper should have a certain structure to follow. In the next sections, we will discuss how this element should look like and how to create it step-by-step.
However, search engines, like Google, do not always filter the results properly. You may find irrelevant and outdated information among the offered sources. Sure, the results that pop up first usually contain the best content, but you should know which pieces of it exactly you need for your work. The lucky ones tend to find right what they need on the first offered website. However, most of the students spend hours on the web just to end up with nothing. Less credible sources may trick you and even lead to a complete disaster with your project. So, what is the purpose of a research paper?
What Is a Research Paper? Definition and Purposes
What exactly is a research paper? If a student conducts an experiment and documents all the steps and findings, they are writing a research paper. This type of paper is much more complicated than a high school essay that you used to write in your early years. A research paper is the first step on the way to writing a good dissertation or thesis. This type of writing is an integral part of any course, and it’s impossible to finish education without submitting a certain amount of such projects.
Unlike a dissertation made of hundreds of pages, a research paper takes less time. It usually consists of no more than five pages. A student has to rely on in-class notes, lectures, documentaries, external sources (primary and secondary), and personal knowledge of the selected subject. Tutors demand up up-to-date sources meaning they should not be older than five years. The sources should also be relevant and trustworthy (e.g., academic and scientific journals and scholarly articles).
What types of sources exist and how to use them
Under the trusted sources, teachers usually mean those that cannot be edited by any online user. Those are the sources that can only be edited by the admins who are experts in specific fields. For example, Wikipedia, Quora, or Reddit will not work as these are open sources that can be fixed by any online user. It is better to choose websites ending with .edu or .gov to collect information for your research project (unless your tutor asks to use Wikipedia or similar sources).
Another question is how to write a good research paper. You will never achieve this goal without using two types of recommended sources:
- Primary sources – they serve as a basis for various experiments. Those are surveys, polls, interviews, diaries, etc. You are the one to come up with the questions and ask an expert or group of people to participate in order to collect answers for your work. You get these sources from the first hands, so they are the most accurate. It might be challenging to work with them as they require the knowledge of quantitative statistical methods. You can also use the articles published in scientific journals.
- Secondary sources – those are pieces of information that you can find online or in the library. They are already written for you, so you don’t have to conduct any experiments or surveys on your own. You just use the data that's already available. Those are textbooks, encyclopedias, dictionaries, etc.
Sometimes, experts name the third category of sources. They call them tertiary. They serve for identification and structuring the sources that belong to the first two groups. For example, we can say that an abstract is a tertiary source. It offers a summary of different resources. Also, those could be indexes that include the important bibliographic info. Finally, those are databases – online indexes that may contain summaries of various reliable sources.
The research will help you both to choose a good topic and an impressive, catchy title. If you cannot find enough materials regarding a specific problem, it is better to leave it aside and think about an alternative. Look for ideas in such sources as:
- Scholarly articles
- Social media platforms
- Research papers and dissertations
The primary objective of this type of writing is to contribute something to the development of the community. The purpose is to offer the most effective solutions to the existing problems and share forecasts for the future based on the findings. It is not easy to persuade the audience that your topic is important to study. That is the challenge. Almost every day, we face a need to learn something new and research. A research paper is a good practice to be prepared for your grown-up, professional life. That is why studying its structure and objectives is necessary for every student.
It is up to the student to decide whether to use only one category or all three of them. You should also pay attention to the instructions from your teachers. Before we provide you with an example of a research paper, we would like to share other facts and tips to help you compose the project.
Which Research Paper Format to Choose?
What is the format of a research paper? Many people confuse the terms “format,” “structure,” and “outline.” An outline can be a structure and format simultaneously; it defines how the entire research paper will be planned and look like. Thus, a student should always start with developing an outline for a research paper.
Start Writing an Outline
Many students make a big mistake when they get to writing an outline without even reading the prompt. But we recommend starting with considering your topic. If the specific prompt is mentioned in the professor's requirements, study it carefully (read it several times and underline the buzzwords/keywords and the main idea or research questions to answer). In the prompt, you may also find a hint for your thesis statement (research question).
After that, take care of the information you're going to use to support your ideas. Collect and analyze relevant sources before you choose the topic (if it is not specified) and one more time — after having decided on the research question. Take notes while exploring the data sources and different materials. If you create a bullet-point list, you can come up with a research paper outline based on it, describing each section in more detail.
One more vital step is to define the target audience — it is the right time to choose the appropriate language. Experts recommend avoiding slang and jargon words unless you work on a paper for linguistics or philology. Stick to the single tone/writing style during the process.
The longest part of your work is the research process. Each time you study a new piece of literature, write down the basic information about it:
- Full title
- Publication date
- Main discoveries/statements/ideas
If you do so while conducting a study, you won’t have to break your head against the wall trying to recall this information when it's time to include it in writing. You may organize important references at the beginning of your work.
Use a Research Paper Outline Example
Once you are done with all pre-writing activities, think about the preferred or required outline format. Such elements as the title page and list with references (bibliography) always depend on whether you write in MLA, APA, or another format. The style frequently depends on the subject or educational establishment as well.
After having collected the necessary evidence from different sources, it's time for you to write a research paper outline and organize all the information — in this article, we'll provide you with professional recommendations to follow.
Research Paper Outline — Step-by-Step Guide
It is time to talk about the peculiarities of this project. And, the primary element to start from is a research paper outline. Before crafting it, decide on the length of a project based on the required amount of words or pages (considering that one page double-spaced is approximately 275 words). Keep in mind that professors don't count appendices or works cited page.
Academic writing is a bit different from a scientific one — mind the nuances. We suggest analyzing similar papers published in scientific journals before developing a good plan. Then, the process of research paper outline developing should begin — here are the integral components to include in your assignment:
- Title and authors
- Abstract (no more than 300 words)
- Table of contents (you can base it on an outline as they are similar, but add the exact page numbers)
- Literature review (with a brief description of sources where you found the supporting information)
- Equipment and methods
- References (to another piece of research, etc.)
After analyzing a good research paper example, you’ll understand how to compose each of these sections and prepare an outline.
Sometimes, an outline may be prepared in the form of detailed information about every section. The main body will depend on your topic and subject matter, and here, we won't describe its role.
While creating this research paper element, you may notice some logical mistakes or structure issues. As a rule, such a project implies:
- Survey of the relevant sources.
- Synthesis of the relevant info and evidence.
- Evaluation of the data collected by determining gaps in the existing knowledge base.
- Analysis of the interconnection between the selected works and your own research project.
Ask yourself, does your outline cover those stages of your research paper writing?
Introduction and Conclusion
What about an introduction? Some students prefer writing it apart from the outline. It is important to provide background information, explain the significance of the study, and offer a hypothesis or thesis statement. So, you may prepare it separately. This way, you'll be sure your subject matter is relevant for your academic level and class. Also, an introduction may mention the major stages of your work that won't let you omit them in your research paper outline.
As for the results, you may combine them with discussion or make them two separate parts — those are a synopsis of the statistics and facts. And, in a discussion section, a writer must list and explain the outcomes of the study: Have they influenced the issue of a subject matter? Can they be implemented efficiently?
You obviously have to mention the outcomes in the conclusion part. Try to summarize the results in a few paragraphs — you may end up by offering some forecasts for the future or development of the issue in question. Since you have worked with a research paper outline, check if all the points mentioned in it are covered appropriately. If you fail to research any specific aspect of a topic, it is better not to mention it.
As a final touch of your writing process, check your assignment for plagiarism and mistakes. Now, there are many online tools that will help you with content analysis, coherence, and correctness.
However, another vital criterion is a format of a research paper, meaning the layout. It is easy to implement in Microsoft Word or other similar editing software for other operating systems. You just need to know which settings to choose in the tab. Numerous citation formats exist (AMA, IEEE, Bluebook, Harvard, etc.), so it is not easy to choose the right one for your research paper.
If we consider an MLA research paper example, it will not have a separate title page. Instead, a small heading specifying the student’s name, course, educational institution, and professor is required. Some other guidelines will include:
- A white 8 ½ x 11” paper is recommended
- Input a single-inch margin on all sides of the page
- Indent the initial word in each paragraph 1,5 inch
- Indent set-off quotations 1” from the left margin
- The font that you apply to the entire text should be clear (readable). Teachers recommend using Arial, Calibri, or Times New Roman
- Check whether italics look different from the regular typeface
- Use a twelve-point size
- Double-space the entire project
- Make sure that there is a single space after periods and other punctuation marks
- Watch for any updates in the MLA style writing manual and your tutor’s specific requirements
If you have a look at any research paper example MLA style, you may notice that the bibliography (a full list of references to the sources that you have used in your study) is called Works Cited. This page shows up at the end of the work, after the conclusion. That is another critical thing to remember. If your teacher does not tell you that the MLA research paper format is the right one to use, keep in mind it suits tasks in linguistics, literature, history, cultural studies, and other humanitarian disciplines. It is also the most common writing style (review the recent, eighth version available now).
The primary alternative for MLA is an APA format research paper. If you or your teacher decide(s) to make the situation a bit more complicated, choose the style established by the American Psychological Association. For an APA research paper example, the short instructions are pretty much similar, but you will have to come up with the title page based on the following:
- Make sure that the title of your document captures the main message
- Avoid jargon, slang, abbreviations, or words that serve no purpose in a research paper title
- Place the title in the center roughly three or four lines from the top
- Make the title bold, in title case, and the same font size as your other page text
- Never underline or italicize the title — other text on the page should be plain
- Double-space all text on the title page and do the same for the rest of the doc
- Do not include any titles in the author’s name, such as Dr. or Ms.
- The institutional affiliation is the school the author attends or the location where the author conducted the research
Do not forget about the bibliography, which is called References. If you manage to find a good research paper example APA style, you might notice that it is most commonly used for academic docs, such as scholarly articles, journals, and textbooks. Use this format within the area of behavioral and social sciences. In fact, you can use APA in many other disciplines if the style is not specified.
The next thing to learn is how to structure a research paper. The following parts of our article will provide you with valuable information on how to create a research project, with both pre-writing and post-writing tips, including topic selection.
How to Write a Research Paper: Basic Pre-writing & Post-writing Guidelines
If you would like to know how to write a research paper fast, we will disappoint you: there is no way to cope with such a responsible project quickly. It requires plenty of time and effort, especially if you face particular college research paper topics for the first time in your life. A profound study is needed to answer the question. The quality of your content and solutions to the chosen problem will determine your final grade. That’s why you should not be in a hurry.
You may keep in mind some useful tips and tricks that will help you to focus and avoid falling off the topic. Here are the short explanations of how to write a research paper (pre-writing stages):
- Remember the goal of your work
Various research papers have various objectives. You need to keep them in mind to get the most relevant and informative sources.
- Develop a list of major concepts
It will speed up the research process significantly. You should know the keywords and key phrases for your work.
- Attend college library
As we have already mentioned, even though you can find plenty of info on any topic in the world on the web, you should not underestimate the value of traditional libraries for your studies. Textbooks offer the best valid data.
- Put down important information
Making notes will make it easier for you to work on your project. For example, write down everything covered in class that relates to your field of study. Each time you quote any source, put down the entire entry for a reference page not to work on it separately after you are finished with the paper.
- Work with different sources
Apart from the sources that you should avoid, like open online encyclopedias, collect as many materials as possible to compare and contrast them. The truth is always somewhere in the middle.
- Evaluate and organize the gathered information
Review the data you have collected. Define the key sources and solutions.
- Prepare an outline
That is the final stage to take before writing the paper itself. It will be your guiding friend throughout your journey, so you should have it even if it is not required by your professor. If this list of research paper tips looks long to you, we can make it shorter. Organizing your academic and scientific works is way easier when you hire our certified writers or stick to these rules:
- Focus on the main contribution
- Prepare material for people who lack knowledge of the subject
- Exclude superfluous info
- Follow the “context-content-conclusion” principle
- Apply parallel structures
- Mention possible deviations and restrictions
- Stress the significance of your study
- Use logical sequences to interpret the findings
- Manage your time wisely
- Obtain feedback from others
Now, before we explain how to write a research paper outline, we want to cover another essential aspect. Choosing a topic or issue to analyze is the key to everything. We will consider the scenario where your tutor does not assign a specific problem or question to analyze.
Research paper structure (with outline template and example)
If you would like to learn how to write an outline for a research paper, it means that you are looking for the structure of a research paper. Those terms are identical. You can also call it a table of contents. An outline for a research paper is much more expanded than one for an essay. It contains more chapters and elements.
- Title page
It is the shortest and simplest part which has to state the title of your research, your full name, course, professor’s name, college credentials, and date of submission. You just need to take care of the proper formatting. A title page is usually required in APA style and other citation formats that are more demanding than MLA. Present what you’re going to talk about in one clear, catchy title.
It is a brief explanation of what the audience will learn from your work. Do not make it more than 1/3 of a page long. State only the major points of your study as well as its significance. Writing an abstract is a difficult art to master as it should contain a very short summary of the research with all the main points. Try to make all the sentences in this part brief and focused. Do not include any acronyms, abbreviations, and quotations here.
- Contents or outline
In a table of contents, you should list all of the sections of your work. Provide the corresponding page numbers next to each new heading. It will lead your readers through your work.
You should present the topic or questions to answer. Explain why you decided to investigate the problem. Finish this opening part with a solid thesis statement made up of one or two sentences. List the objectives of the study. Provide background information in this section. Our writers will also make your intro attention-grabbing.
Describe how you conducted the experiment(s). List the tools, equipment, and techniques. It may remind you of a process analysis essay as your reader should be able to repeat the same after reading your instructions. Add the locations of the manufacturers (if any). Explain how you managed to obtain the findings step-by-step so that this process can be repeated by anyone else. Name criteria for inclusion and exclusion, as well as limitations.
- Results and discussion
Present the findings of your study. Make sure to interpret every obtained figure. You may use charts, graphs, and tables for visualization and better understanding. Sometimes, a discussion may serve as your conclusion. Do not come up with any definitive statements. Decide whether something is true based on your results. Do the outcomes prove the hypothesis?
List the sources that helped you to create a research project. Follow the chosen or recommended format.
This part is for everybody who contributed to your research. List them all carefully!
- Tables and Figures
List all the visual elements like graphs and charts inserted in your paper. Explain what they stand for and refer to them properly.
Developing an Intro for a Research Paper
An introductory part of a research project is the initial paragraph or few, which the audience sees first, and it explains the importance of a question, issue, or problem. Each research requires context so that the target audience can realize why you have developed this project. This part should capture the attention of readers. That is not easy to do, and that is why many students get stuck with this chapter and, as a result, entire paper.
That’s why we want to show how to write an introduction for a research paper. The main goal is to set up the author’s rationale, meaning the basis for the study. Interpret what the readers will discover and learn from your writing, proving that the message that you try to share is useful for the community. It is critical to engage with readers from the first line. Here is what a writer should do in the introduction:
- Present the topic or research question
- Develop context and background
- Explain what you plan to observe
- Provide the rationale
- Stress the significance of your study
- Offer a hypothesis or thesis statement
You may decide to start with the hook sentence. To grab the audience’s attention, start with the heart of the topic. Make them interested by adding a joke, rhetorical question, metaphor, simile, quotation, fact, etc. You should create intrigue from the beginning. Think about articles and books that made you interested and curious from the first few lines of the story. It is especially vital if your research paper is written for social subjects, such as English, History, and humanities. Try to create a picture in the head of your audience. A striking statistic, for example, would turn the reader’s attention to the problem that they might underestimate (e.g., you can recall the number of people who died from coronavirus in Italy alone as well as the number of available equipment in the hospitals).
Make sure that your wording is not difficult to understand. If the readers notice some complicated terms from the start (and with no clear explanations or examples), they might refuse to keep on reading your work. Do not be lazy! Spend a bit more time on interpreting terminology right between the lines or develop a separate chapter known as a glossary (a.k.a. dictionary) at the end of your research paper. Use simple words to explain complex terms to the audience. While your teacher might know all the terms, you still risk losing credits without providing meaningful explanations.
How to Compose a Thesis for a Research Project
So, you are done with an introduction. This part is hard to imagine without either a hypothesis or a thesis, and that is why the next thing this article will do is explain how to write a thesis for a research paper. A thesis statement is the heart of your research. It is a short fact that has to be proven and defended. The audience should believe in the importance and truth of this central argument of your work. The experiments you will carry out are necessary to support this statement. You should collect evidence for the same goal.
A thesis statement should be brief and concise. It should not contain more than two sentences (a single sentence is the best length). The hardest thing is to squeeze all the ideas that you may have into a thesis. The main goal of a thesis statement is to reflect the scientific problem which is relevant for the specific community. Each chapter of the research paper should concern the thesis.
This sentence or two is also the basis of the intro or concluding paragraph. In an opening paragraph, an author should offer a thesis statement. In conclusion, a writer should paraphrase the thesis not to repeat oneself. It is important to recall the main idea closer to the end of the project. The final point is to support or disprove the offered thesis.
Generally, a thesis statement is the presentation of the topic or research question to the audience. It allows learning what the text will be about and deciding whether this particular issue is interesting to the reader.
Writing a Conclusion & Bibliography
It is time to finally explain how to write a conclusion for a research paper. It is possible to avoid writing a conclusion if you include it in the Results and Discussion section – the one with the results and interpretations. In the final part, the author should restate (paraphrase) the thesis statement from the abstract or introduction. Next, one should sum up the arguments from the body of the paper. In the end, a student may share some forecasts to show researchers further directions for investigation.
While using the thoughts of other authors in your works, make sure to cite and reference them properly. That is why you need to choose a writing style and stick to its guidelines. Keep in mind that each piece of content you will use was written by someone, and, most probably, it has all rights reserved. You might face serious issues with academic dishonesty if you simply copy-paste some information from externals sources without citing and referencing it properly.
You need permission to use sources with copyrights in your projects or distinguish the contributors correctly. Proper formatting and referencing will help you to earn more credits for your work. If you cannot receive an approval to use someone’s work for your project, still follow the formatting guidelines.
Basic tips for creating a research paper
The next step is to discuss useful, time-tested tips and tricks that will help you to write a research paper. Here are some basic steps to take:
- Begin with a simple search, meaning that you use Google or its analogy. They will provide you with lots of great ideas, including the correct keywords to type in for a narrower search.
- Do not use Wikipedia and other open sources that can be edited or created by just any user of the Internet. They may contain false, unapproved information. And college professors tend to lower grades for using such websites. Print encyclopedias like Encyclopedia Britannica can be used. Some tutors even insist on quoting these sources. Open sources are a great jumping-off point when one should decide what to look for.
- Search for data and information in scholarly databases and archives available on the web or in your library. Online sources like that include InfoTrac and EBSCO, for instance. They allow accessing the most recent studies in various fields.
- Newspapers & magazines will help you to catch up with what is currently happening in the field of your interest. Choose scientific magazines instead of popular ones. However, you can get useful info in both of them, depending on what subject you are writing for. Forbes, New York Times, and Time are the best options when it comes to collecting credible and fresh data and statistics.
Never underestimate the role of a college or regional library. You may have to spend more time there, but the results are worth it. Only in a physical library you can find rare and interesting materials to prove your position or introduce something unusual in your assignment. Not all articles were scanned or republished online – keep that in mind! You may also add a glossary with an interpretation of the complex terms and phrases. Once again, one may write a research project for a scientific journal or academic setting, so an outline might slightly vary.
While getting ready with your research, you should first conduct in-depth research. Involve both primary and secondary sources. The first ones are immediate information from people who are directly connected with the topic. Those are newspapers, speeches, interviews, polls, surveys, datasets, texts of original docs, etc. As for secondary sources, they tend to add a layer of explanation and critical analysis. They include textbooks, scholarly articles, documentaries, etc.
It is hard to define the exact size of the project. On the whole, there are no limitations on the word count. Your research paper can be some 50-100 pages depending on the complexity of the problem or your institution’s requirements.
The best way to understand how to write a research paper is to get an example. You can find plenty of free examples online. We will provide some of them in the shortened version below.
What Does It Mean to Choose Good Research Paper Topics?
So, you are sitting there, ready to start working on your task. However, you lack a specific topic because it wasn't assigned to you. A research paper of every student should be original, so that is why most professors leave the topic selection to you. They also want to see how well you understand the subject. When a student selects the topic on their own, it is the best proof of their competence (sure, if the topic corresponds to the subject).
Do you want to know how to choose interesting research papers topics for your project? There are several simple rules to obey. First of all, you should make up a list of things that you like about the studied subjects. It is critical to pick the topic or problem you are really interested in. Without a pure interest, you will not try hard, and each grade you earn matters for the final estimation of your course score.
Evaluate your knowledge and skills soberly. Try to pick only those areas in which you have expertise. Remember, your skills and experience alone are not enough. You should search for credible information from external sources always. Try to make sure that you can find enough books, journals, magazines, websites, and scholarly articles on the selected idea. You will have to dig up supporting evidence and examples to defend your thesis statement. That is why external sources matter.
The good idea is to counsel your professor, family members, or group mates. Together, you can brainstorm to pick the best topic for a research paper. Note down all the ideas and study each of them closely. Weigh all the pros and cons of the topic. Check out how many relevant sources are available to discuss. Before making the final decision, come to your professor for approval. As you can see, it is not that easy to choose the subject of matter on your own. Moreover, you have to decide between a topic and question as there are some differences between the two. To sum up, here is how to select the idea for your project:
- Think about topics that you like or questions you would like to study in-depth
- Assess personal knowledge of the subject objectively
- Check out how many primary and secondary sources are available on the topic
- Brainstorm with people around you
- Come up with a list of possible ideas
- Always consult your teacher before making the final choice
- Ask our professional writers to choose the idea for you
Well, you can also look for inspiration online. Look through the recent news to find out what matters for the community today and pick one of the issues.
Lists of Excellent Research Paper Topics, Ideas, and Questions
You should keep the topic manageable once you‘re done with its selection. To come up with the best title, narrow down the broad topic or extend a narrow idea. The best topic should not be locally confined, over-popular, recent, or broadly interdisciplinary. The best topic should also be flexible so that you can play with various facts and statistics that you find to defend your position.
You should also decide on the number of sources to be used for your research project based on the required length of the assignment. If it’s a two-page paper, two or three sources will suffice. For the three-five page paper, no less than four sources are required. For the annotated bibliography, it is okay to observe 6-15 sources. Finally, the papers of 15 pages and longer should cite up to 20 different sources. Now, let us introduce some top college argumentative research paper topics from different categories.
Outstanding research paper topics on medicine
Do you need some unique research paper ideas for your healthcare & medicine program? You may find one of these useful:
- Ways to cope with Alzheimer's disease
- Upcoming innovations in the field of healthcare
- The origins and evolution of the medical tools used in surgery
- Various approaches to treating pregnant women
- The ethical issues of medical research on animals
Now that a medical field is closely related to the field of psychology, you may find the next list useful as well.
Stunning research paper topics on psychology
Psychology is one of the best-paid industries today. It's no wonder, so many students apply for this degree. Here are some great topics that can help with your psychology research:
- Profile a type of therapy (e.g., group therapy or individual therapy)
- The causes & effects of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa and obesity)
- The primary symptoms of depression and how to handle it
- Aspects of the aging process
- Persuasion, propaganda, and marketing nowadays
Yes, these topics might be rather contradictory and sensitive, so discuss them carefully!
Top-recommended research paper topics on education
Students who would like to become professors of the prestigious colleges or universities have to write many research papers in education. Here are the most exciting good research paper topics from the category of education:
- Effective prevention measures against school bullying
- The effectiveness/accuracy of the standardized school tests and exams
- The role of social networking in the life of modern students
- Stressful situations and depressions caused by overwhelming study schedules
- Causes & effects of homeschooling
It is the easiest category as you can simply think about what’s going on in your educational institution and share it with others.
Research paper topics on business for MBA students
MBA is becoming more and more popular today. It’s a unique opportunity for young people to master the art of business, management, and marketing. These areas help to earn plenty of money. Thus, if you prefer business studies, here is some inspiration for your classes:
- How to achieve the concept of free market
- Differences and similarities between franchises and start-ups
- The impact of government on the development of young businesses
- Can a family business destroy the family?
- Corporate culture and special rituals on the example of the car industry
Religious studies and history research paper topics
Religion is closely connected to anthropology, political science, history, cultural studies, humanities, and other subjects. Religion is serious power, so it makes sense to study this subject carefully.
- How do contemporary people implement religious practices?
- Discussing the meaning of soul in various religions
- The myths of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome: differences and similarities
- The history and development of Hinduism
- Religious counseling vs. classical psychology and philosophy
We hope that these interesting research paper topics will be useful. The last thing that we have for you in this article is a free sample of a good research paper for a psychology class.
Free Research Paper Example from Experts for You
Mind that this is a very short sample. We have mentioned the recommended length of a research paper above, so make sure that you achieve the 1,000-word mark.
Modern theories are concentrated on personal traits to interpret wrong-doing, as well as why people do intentional harm to others. Experts forecast that a tiny population (no more than three percent) would damage others in case of the corresponding order. Adolph Eichmann, for instance, says that he has been doing nothing else but obeying orders. However, what about moral convictions? This research will reveal the outcomes of the psychological experiment and further investigation of the random sample of people who are ordered to harm others.
Forty males were taking part in the experiment. They got $10 for the test and found this job in an online ad. The primary tool was a so-called “shock generator:” with its help, the researcher tricked the population into believing that they obtained a punch each time they would refuse to obey the commands. As for the process itself, one member met with another in the waiting room before the test without knowing that one of them was an actor. The roles were divided as of a teacher and learner. The teacher believed that they were delivering real shock attacks to the second group members. In fact, the learner only pretended to be shocked, as well as doing the things that the teacher was commanding to do.
- Results & Discussion
With several exceptions, the population was convinced of the reality of the experimental situation that they were administering shocks to other members of the group. The participants all obtained printed 14-point scales and questionnaires to find out about their impressions. The modal response was 14 (extremely painful), with the average at 13.42. Two outcomes of this experiment were surprising and unforeseen: recalling childhood and possible violent episodes that took place in their families, as well as the sheer strength of obedient tendencies.
Once again, the conclusion part might be missing if you provide summaries, forecasts, and conclusions in the Results and Discussion section of your document.